- 1 China
- 2 New Wave Party
- 3 Revolutionary Student Brigade
- 4 Founding conference PSN
- 5 PSN
- 6 Kent State conference
- 7 Gulf War event
- 8 Committees of Correspondence Connection
- 9 Forward Motion
- 10 Chicago New Party
- 11 The International Communist Seminar
- 12 "Support Bill Ayers"
- 13 Political activity
- 14 Labor for Palestine
- 15 September 24, 2010 FBI Raids
- 16 Committee to Stop FBI Repression delegation to Congress
- 17 People's World 23rd Annual Banquet memorial
- 18 Against NATO Summit
- 19 People’s Agenda march
- 20 PressTV
- 21 Syrian elections
- 22 Right of Peoples to Self-Determination and Building a Multipolar World
- 23 Second Moscow conference
- 24 UNAC leadership
- 25 Anti-Trump protests
- 26 Anti-Trump meeting, Chicago
- 27 References
Joe Iosbaker is employed as an Office Support Specialist at the University of Illinois at Chicago Office of the College of Medicine since May 1990 and is a Trustee of the Illinois State University Retirement System.
In 2009 Joe Iosbaker was 50 years-old, married to Stephanie Weiner and has two children. He lives in the City of Chicago. He attended the University of Iowa from 1977 to 1979. Joe Iosbaker grew up on a farm in Iowa.
Since 1999, Joe Iosbaker has been a leader of the Freedom Road Socialist Organization/FightBack! split from the original Freedom Road Socialist Organization/Organizacion Socialista del Camino para la Libertad.
New Wave Party
In the spring of 1979, concerned students at the University of Iowa believed they were poised to help initiate a fresh movement of political activism on campus. Capturing this idea by calling themselves the New Wave Party, these students organized a progressive party within the university student government and entered the election campaign for seats in the Student Senate the following year. Since 1980, when they won 8 of the 21 seats, they enlarged their support base and solidified an aggressive platform built around their support of a wide range of social causes. Key New Wave Party activists included Joe Iosbaker, Stephanie Weiner and Linda Yanney.
Revolutionary Student Brigade
In 1980 Joe Iosbaker was a member of the Revolutionary Student Brigade. He had joined in 1977.
Founding conference PSN
Progressive Student Network founding conference attendees - Kent State, 1980, included - Joe Iosbaker Revolutionary Student Brigade, New Wave Party, Iranian People's Support Committee, Black Hills Alliance, Iowa City, Iowa.
In 1988, Joe Iosbaker was a member of Progressive Student Network.
Kent State conference
For left-leaning students here, preserving what they call "the spirit of Kent and Jackson State" has become a central part of a campaign to revitalize the student movement. They organized a conference May 1990 where veterans of the 1960s left urged the 1990s left to carry on its mission.
"Don't make the mistake of not daring to change the world you inherit," Bernardine Dohrn, a former leader of the radical Weather Underground, told a cheering, whistling crowd gathered at a university gymnasium. Dohrn, along with virtually every other speaker at the conference, also underlined the most powerful legacy of Vietnam to the political left: the notion that the United States seeks, in Dohrn's words, "world domination."
The surest applause line at the conference was to condemn U.S. military intervention, whether in El Salvador, Panama, the Philippines or Cambodia.
"Today's student activism is not about nostalgia," said Joe Iosbaker, a founder of the Progressive Student Network, which now has chapters on about 50 campuses. "Most of these people haven't read books about the '60s, and most of them don't like Neil Young."
Tom Albanese, a Kent State PSN leader, believes there are limits to the lessons the Vietnam era has to offer his generation. Today's leftist organizers must recruit on the basis of a broad range of issues -- opposition to U.S. policy in Central America, support for blacks in South Africa, choice on abortion, the environment.
Gulf War event
In 1991 a Freedom Road Socialist Organization/Forward Motion Forum was held in Chicago. Speakers were Bernardine Dohrn, former Nat. officer Students for a Democratic Society, Abdul Alkalimat, convenor Malcolm X conference, Camille Odeh from the Arab Community Center, Joe Iosbaker from Freedom Road Socialist Organization. Stephanie Weiner of Freedom Road Socialist Organization moderated.
Committees of Correspondence Connection
In 1994 Joe Iosbaker, of Freedom Road Socialist Organization was listed on a "Membership, Subscription and Mailing List" for the Chicago Committees of Correspondence, an offshoot of the Communist Party USA.
Joe Iosbaker, Freedom Road Socialist Organization, Chicago Staley Workers Committee, contributed an article "War zone fighters" to Freedom Road Socialist Organization's Forward Motion, Spring 1996 issue.
Chicago New Party
In 1998 Chicago New Party leaders Frankie Torres, Deborah McCoy, Jose Kader, Bob Palmer, Rafael Rodriguez, Joe Iosbaker, Stephanie Weiner, Yakira Nunez, Vinnie Izurieta, Sergio Vargas, Peter Shearn, Pryianka Basu, Dave Rolston, and Mary Robles supported Willie Delgado in the 35th Ward a New Party member running for State Representative, in his defeat of Elba Rodriguez by a slim 241 vote margin.
- The margin of victory was 20 votes per precinct in the New Party's turf.
Joe Iosbaker was Precinct Captain in the 13th Ward. He had been working election day at this same precinct for progressive candidates for about a decade -- since Harold Washington won re-election in 1987.
The International Communist Seminar
The The International Communist Seminar is an annual conference held in Brussels on May 2-4. Iosbaker delivered a speech entitled ""Report on Labor movement"" at the 1998 conference. You can read his speech here.
"Support Bill Ayers"
In October 2008, several thousand college professors, students and academic staff signed a statement Support Bill Ayers in solidarity with former Weather Underground Organization terrorist Bill Ayers.
In the run up to the U.S. presidential elections, Ayers had come under considerable media scrutiny, sparked by his relationship to presidential candidate Barack Obama.
- We write to support our colleague Professor William Ayers, Distinguished Professor of Education and Senior University Scholar at the University of Illinois at Chicago, who is currently under determined and sustained political attack...
- We, the undersigned, stand on the side of education as an enterprise devoted to human inquiry, enlightenment, and liberation. We oppose the demonization of Professor William Ayers.
Joe Iosbaker of the University of Illinois – Chicago signed the statement.
Joe Iosbaker has served as Precinct Captain for former State Senator Miguel del Valle. Mr. Iosbaker was a member of the Social Justice Committee of Inter American Magnet School, and volunteer for the Inter American Magnet School Noche Cultural.
Labor for Palestine
On December 14, 2009 Labor for Palestine released an "Open Letter from U.S. Trade Unionists to AFL-CIO President Richard Trumka: Boycott Apartheid Israel".
September 24, 2010 FBI Raids
On September 24 the F.B.I. raided the homes of twelve leftist activists across the U.S.A. looking for links to foreign terrorist organizations. Iosbaker was one of those whose home was raided and who is being investigated by the FBI.
Committee to Stop FBI Repression delegation to Congress
In mid November 2010, a delegation from the Committee to Stop FBI Repression ( returned home from several days of bringing the "issue of the FBI raids and grand jury subpoenas of people doing international solidarity work and anti-war organizing to the U.S. Capitol". Three supporters of the Marxist-Leninist Freedom Road Socialist Organization/FightBack!, Deb Konechne of the Committee to Stop FBI Repression, Anh Pham, who is facing a reactivation of her subpoena and Joe Iosbaker, whose home was raided, spent two days meeting with U.S. Representatives on the issue. The delegation asked each Congressperson to sponsor a “Dear Colleague” letter condemning the raids and grand jury subpoenas. In the two days, the delegation met with either the Congressional Representative’s staff or the Representative themselves fro[[m the following 16 offices: Tammy Baldwin (WI), John Conyers (MI), Danny Davis (IL), Keith Ellison (MN), Raul Grijalva (AZ), Luis Gutierrez (IL), Mike Honda (CA), Jesse Jackson, Jr. (IL), Dennis Kucinich (OH), Barbara Lee (CA), Jim McDermott (WA), Jim McGovern (MA), Bobby Rush (IL), Linda Sanchez (CA), Jan Schakowsky (IL), Maxine Waters (CA). The "meetings were positive, with all the offices expressing genuine concern about the situation. In some cases, because of the outpouring of calls from around the country, the U.S. Representatives were aware that the delegation was in Washington D.C. and the offices made time on their schedules to meet with the delegation. This reinforces the continuing importance of the solidarity work taking place around the country."
Rep. Conyers (MI), chair of the Judiciary Committee, directed the Counsel of the Judiciary Committee to meet with the delegation. Also, Rep. Ellison (MN) and his Congressional staff met directly with the delegation for a significant amount of time. rep. Ellison sent a letter to U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder, expressing concern over the situation and is continuing to work on options to support his constituents affected. The delegation also received face-to-face meetings with Rep Gutierrez and Rep Davis from Chicago. Rep. Grijalva’s (AZ) office set up a meeting between the delegation and the Executive Director of the Congressional Progressive Caucus in the Congress of which rep. Grijalva is the chair. In addition, the office of Jan Schakowsky (IL) and Maxine Waters (CA) gave the delegation significant time and attention.
“It was clear that progressive Representatives of the Congress are very concerned about the FBI investigation. Overall, they were very thankful for our visit and for the information and analysis given to them The level of awareness about the raids and grand jury was varied, from little to full awareness, but the delegation certainly changed that. After the two days, our presence and purpose definitely created a stir in the halls of Congress. “The fact that we were able to interact with 16 legislative aides or Congress people themselves, during an extremely busy time of restructuring leadership in the Congress, exemplifies the attention this matter is receiving”, stated Joe Iosbaker.
People's World 23rd Annual Banquet memorial
More than 100 labor, community, religious, environmental and equal rights activists celebrated the People's World 23rd Annual Banquet in Chicago, Dec. 5 2010.
Despite the frigid temperatures outside supporters turned up the heat for justice inside as they wined and dined at the Lee Wing Wah restaurant in Chinatown honoring this year's theme, "Let's put people back to work: Rebuild America."
Special greetings were delivered by Joe Iosbaker, one of 17 peace and justice activists whose homes were raided by the FBI in search of evidence of "material support for terrorism," and were subpoenaed to appear before a grand jury. Iosbaker announced the U.S. Attorney Patrick Fitzgerald issued three new subpoenas on Dec. 5.
Iosbaker said freedom of speech and association were at stake in this fight. He expressed his admiration for communists, socialists and labor and peace activists who had fought the McCarthy witch hunts.
Against NATO Summit
According to an April 2012 press release from Lauren Love, Rainbow/PUSH Coalition, and Eric Ruder, Coalition Against NATO/G8, the Rev. Jesse Jackson and other community and labor leaders will gather on Thursday, April 19, at 11:15 am on the 2nd floor of City Hall to announce their plans to march in opposition to NATO. The march will take place on Sunday, May 20, which is the first day of the NATO summit, and is being organized by the Coalition Against NATO/G8 War and Poverty Agenda (CANG8).
Standing with Rev. Jackson to announce their support for the march and People’s Summit will be Occupy Chicago; the Chicago Teachers Union; the National Nurses United; and members of the Service Employees International Union.
“Our world has become jilted by war and weapons,” said Rev. Jackson. “There is simply too much violence, too much concentrated wealth and too much poverty. I hope on May 20 there will be a large demonstration with global participation. It’s time we go in a different direction. I am urging us to shift our priorities. This demonstration is designed to appeal to the leaders of the world to choose to depend less on military intervention and more on negotiations to try to heal these societies ravished by poverty and internal strife.”
CANG8 organizers are pleased to be joined in their efforts by many other community and labor leaders in addition to Rev. Jackson. “ “This march will take place at a crucial moment in NATO’s war on Afghanistan as a majority of Americans have now turned against further U.S. involvement there,” said Joe Iosbaker, a CANG8 organizer.
Many nurses from the Chicago area and beyond have been active in the Occupy movement and in challenging budgets that prioritize war spending over public health. “As an ER nurse, I see the suffering of the 99 percent firsthand,” said Dennis Kosuth, a registered nurse at Stroger Cook County Hospital. “The global 1 percent and the G8 are calling for austerity cuts to vital social services while draining trillions of our tax dollars into the NATO war machine. Our tax dollars should be going into our public schools, healthcare services, libraries, public transportation—back to the people of Main Street. Registered Nurses of the National Nurses United will be marching alongside CANG8 this May to protest NATO and to call for a Robin Hood Tax on the G8 global 1 percent.”
Christine Boardman is the president of Service Employees International Union Local 73, which represents 25,000 public employees in Illinois and Indiana, and she is urging union members and working people to attend the protest in large numbers. “G8 policies have supported so-called ‘free trade agreements,’ which have caused the loss of millions of jobs,” said Boardman. “Instead of funding for war and supporting ‘free trade’ for corporations, which means ‘slave trade’ for workers, it must become our national priority to keep good jobs here and to fund services for our communities.”
Other noted speakers at the May 20 march and the People’s Summit include Malalai Joya, former Afghan member of Parliament and internationally renowned opponent of NATO’s occupation of Afghanistan; Reiner Braun, International Coordinating Committee of the European No to NATO network; Kathy Kelly, Voices for Creative Nonviolence; Malik Mujahid, Muslim Peace Coalition; Medea Benjamin, Code Pink; and Col. Ann Wright (ret.), antiwar activist.
In addition to specifying Jesse Jackson, , speakers will now include, along with those announced earlier: Leah Bolger, head of Veterans for Peace, who was recently tried for “disrupting” the so-called SuperCommittee in Congress; Carlos Montes, who was targeted by an FBI raid in Los Angeles; Kari Fulton, of the Environmental Justice movement; and Larry Holmes, of International Action Center.
People’s Agenda march
August 27, 2012, well over 1,000 people rallied and marched in the streets of Tampa to demand good jobs, affordable education, healthcare, equality, and peace. Although the Republicans cancelled the first day of their convention due to Hurricane Isaac, organizers with the Coalition to March on the RNC went through with their promise to march on the first day of the convention to show their opposition to the agenda of the 1% and their support for a People’s Agenda.
Notable speakers included Carlos Montes, a leading immigrants’ rights leader; Joe Iosbaker; a spokesperson for the anti-war movement; Skye Schmelzer, representative of the National Students for a Democratic Society; Medea Benjamin, a co-founder of Code Pink and major peace activist; Ciara Taylor, a representative of Dream Defenders and a Black community organizer; Nelini Stamp, one of the original organizers of Occupy Wall Street; and Oscar Otzoy, a Florida farm worker organizer with the Coalition of Immokalee Workers. Organizations present included Students for a Democratic Society, Veterans for Peace, Southern California Immigrant Coalition, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, five Florida Occupy chapters, six Fight Back Florida chapters, Dream Defenders, United National Anti-war Coalition, Committee to Stop FBI Repression, International Action Center, Code Pink, four Florida AFL-CIO labor councils, and Region 3 of AFSCME Council 79.
Organizer Fern Figueroa stated: “Today we took a stand with more than 1,000 people against the Republicans and their agenda of hatred, poverty, and war. Today we stand up for all the good things people need and strike a blow against those who deprive us that.”
New York, – Anti-war activists joined Syrian ambassador to the United Nations, Dr. Bashar Jaafari, for a press conference at the U.N. on June 18, at 11:00 a.m. Paul Larudee, Joe Iosbaker, Judy Bello, Scott Williams and Jane Stillwater were observers of the presidential elections in Syria on June 3. They joined official governmental delegations from 11 countries, including Venezuela, Bolivia, Iran and Brazil.
The Americans were in four different Syrian cities, but their experiences were largely the same. They witnessed an outpouring of sentiment by 11 million Syrians for an end to the foreign-backed invasion of their land, and national unity to reconstruct a society that is secular and prosperous. They expressed this mainly by a vote for President Bashar al Assad, who has led the country in defeating the extremist, Al Qaeda-linked armies.
The observers are united in returning home to work against the American government’s intervention in Syria, without which this war would have been over long ago.
The following is a statement by Joe Iosbaker at the press conference:
The Syrian people are an inspiration. They have withstood a terrible war, brought to their country by my government and its allies.
I observed the elections in Homs, where the death toll has been in the thousands, and one week after our visit, a car bomb targeting civilians was exploded by foreign-backed right-wing rebels.
I spoke with a medical student who wants to be an ophthalmologist like her president, Bashar al Assad. She and her young friends were confident that the Syrian people would go forward and rebuild their country.
The U.S. government denounced the election before it was held, and the governments that are behind the war in Syria closed the Syrian embassies in their countries so Syrians abroad could not participate. The Western media was shocked by the hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees in Beirut, Lebanon who lined up for three days to vote at the embassy there. These things showed me what these elections represent: a defeat for the U.S., NATO, the Zionists and the Gulf States, and a victory for the Syrians.
Right of Peoples to Self-Determination and Building a Multipolar World
December 2014 - "As US/NATO aggression towards Russia increases", five leaders from the United National Antiwar Coalition (UNAC) attended an antiwarconference in Moscow, Right of Peoples to Self-Determination and Building a Multipolar World. We were invited by the Anti-Globalization Movement of Russia. The five UNAC members who attended the conference were Margaret Kimberley of Black Agenda Report and the UNAC Administrative Committee; Joe Iosbaker of the Committee to Stop FBI Repression, the Rasmea Odeh defense campaign and the UNAC Administrative Committee; Bill Dores of the International Action Center: women's rights activist, Mo Hannah; and UNAC Co-Coordinator, Joe Lombardo.
On December 16, the delegation of U.S. anti-war activists met with the Embassy of the State of Palestine Ambassador to the Russian Federation, Dr. Fa’ed Mustafa. Ambassador Mustafa agreed to the meeting after a request was made by the Anti-Globalization Movement of Russia, the hosts of the international conference of anti-war forces.
The delegation that met with the ambassador included Joe Lombardo, co-chair of the United National Antiwar Coalition (UNAC), Bill Dores of the International Action Center and UNAC and Mo Hannah, also a member of UNAC and Joe Iosbaker.
Second Moscow conference
Tom Michalak went to Moscow, February 2015, as part of a small delegation of peace activists from the United States. Our goal was to demonstrate that among working people of all countries, cooperation is possible and in our best interests. The other delegates were Oscar Hernandez Santoyo of Milwaukee, an immigrant rights activist with “Youth Empowered in the Struggle” and Joe Iosbaker, of the Rasmea Defense Committee and the Committee to Stop FBI Repression.
The host during our stay in Moscow was Alexander Ionov, president of the Anti-Globalization Movement of Russia. This is not a homogenous organization representing one ideological current. Some of its members subscribe to Korean socialism and some are “Putinists,” that is, champions of the Russian president, among other tendencies. The underlying current among the membership is staunch opposition to Western imperialism and the belief that all nations have the right to self-determination.
On the wall in the group’s office are framed photographs of Hafez and Bashar Al-Assad of Syria, Kim Il Sung of socialist Korea, Hugo Chávez of Venezuela, Fidel Castro and Che Guevara of Cuba, Moammar Gadhafi of Libya and Omar Torrijos of Panama — all political leaders that U.S. imperialism has demonized.
The Anti-Globalization Movement held weekly demonstrations in solidarity with the Cuban 5 political prisoners as well as a demonstration in solidarity with the “Black Lives Matter” movement outside the U.S. Embassy.
The names and organizations of the people on the United National Antiwar Coalition administrative committee are below:
- Marilyn Levin - Co-coordinator New England United
- Joe Lombardo - Co-coordinator Bethlehem Neighbors for Peace
- Chris Gauvreau - Connecticut United for Peace
- Sara Flounders - International Action Center, Workers World Party
- Joe Iosbaker- Committee to Stop FBI Repression, Freedom Road Socialist Organization/FightBack!
- Margaret Kimberley - Black Agenda Report
- Judy Bello - Fellowship of Reconciliation, Upstate Coalition to Ground the Drones and End the Wars
- Bernadette Ellorin - BAYAN, USA, Workers World Party affiliate
- Representative Muslim Peace Coalition, USA
- Abayomi Azikiwe- Pan African News Wire, Michigan Emergency Committee Against War and Injustice, Workers World Party
- Jeff Mackler San Francisco UNA
- I was an advisor to the student protest organizers for the action against Trump. Here's my brief account of their excellent work in this historic action.
Anti-Trump meeting, Chicago
On Nov. 15, 2016, over 300 people gathered for a mass meeting organized by the ANSWER Coalition in Chicago. The meeting was organized to help spark a mass movement to defend immigrants, Muslims, people of color, LGBTQ people, women and all those under attack by the impending Trump administration.
A major focus of the meeting was building the next major anti-Trump march on Nov. 19 in Chicago. We will be meeting at Federal Plaza at 12 noon and marching to Trump Tower. Join the protest on facebook, invite your friends and share.
The meeting was chaired by ANSWER organizers Stefanie Fisher and Laika Kollontai. In her opening statement, Fisher reminded the crowd that we can not and should not look to the Democratic Party to protect us from Trump. “A Trump administration means we need to fight and the Democrats don’t fight for us,” she said. Laika, who is also a member of the Party for Socialism and Liberation, said that our strategy moving forward must be to defend the most vulnerable and oppressed communities, such as Black Trans women.
Syed Ali Hasan, from People United Against Oppression, described the wave of fear which has swept through the Muslim community in the wake of the election but also reminded the crowd that for Muslims the election was a choice between Trump’s racist attacks and Clinton’s policy of domestic surveillance and infiltration of the Muslim community. “This system has failed us,” he said.
A group of Morton College students also spoke about how their lives have been effected by the election. Kassandra Suarez was moved to tears: “This is my first time in a space like this, to be supported as a Latina, as a woman … there are no words to say thank you.”
Chanel Jeffries, an ANSWER volunteer, spoke about growing up as a Queer Black woman in the South.
Mary Dean from Centro Autonomo, the community center which hosted the mass meeting, spoke about her own experiences traveling to countries devastated by American imperialism. “I have been to Honduras and Guatemala and Afghanistan. I have seen first hand the result of US foreign policy,” she said.
John Beacham, the coordinator of ANSWER Chicago and organizer of the November 9 anti-Trump protest, stated that while Trump and Clinton both serve the interests of the ruling class, the election of a man so manifestly bigoted and semi-fascistic as Trump is an opportunity for those willing to fight for a better society. “Movements start when the powers that be go too far,” he said. Facing a crowd of hundreds of people of all races, sexualities, and genders he said, “This is the future. People coming together to fight back.”
- http://www.presstv.com/Detail/2015/06/24/417282/US-imperialism-China-murderous-bully PressTV, US has been exposed as ‘murderous bully’: Anti-war activist]
- University of Iowa Libraries: Records of the New Wave Party (accessed on Oct. 2, 2010)
- [New Voices: Student Activism in the '80s and '90s By Tony Vellela]
- [WaPo, KENT STATE REMAINS CENTER OF 1990S BATTLE OVER MEMORY OF VIETNAM ERA By E.J. Dionne Jr. May 7, 1990]
- Chicago CoC "Membership, Subscription and Mailing List" 10.14.94
- New Party Online News: Building The People's Machine in Chicago's 35th Ward, by Jonathan Green, March 18, 1998 (accessed on Sept. 14, 2011)
- Liberal Education website: Bill Ayers supporters
- Committee to Stop FBI Repression: Who are the targets of the FBI and Grand Jury Witch Hunt? (accessed on Nov. 23, 2010)
- Report on Congressional Delegation From the Committee to Stop FBI Repression, U.S. Peace Council website, posted Nov. 20, 2010
- Peoples World, People’s World honors social justice, equality activists, Pepe Lozano, December 9 2010
- Rev. Jesse Jackson Announces His Support for anti-NATO Protest in Chicago
- [http://wibailoutpeople.org/2012/08/27/coalition-to-march-on-the-rnc-more-than-a-thousand-rally-in-face-of-storm/Wisconsin Bail Out the People Movement Coalition to March on the RNC: More Than a Thousand Rally in Face of Storm Posted on August 27, 2012 For immediate release August 27, 2012]
- Fightback News Anti-war activists hold press conference on Syrian elections at UN By staff | June 18, 2014
- [ http://nepajac.org/rusrpt1.html, Report on UNAC's trip to Russia Joe Lombardo]
- FightBack News U.S. anti-war activists in Moscow, meet with Palestinian ambassador to Russia By Joe Iosbaker | December 16, 2014
- [http://www.workers.org/articles/2015/03/21/youths-visit-to-moscow-exposes-u-s-imperialisms-lies-about-russia/WW Youth’s visit to Moscow exposes U.S. imperialism’s lies about Russia By Tom Michalak posted on March 21, 2015]
- Youtube, An Antiwar Activist's Travel Report on the Former Soviet Union | Joe Iosbaker at the Heartland, Published on Mar 13, 2015
- [Chttps://www.unacpeace.org/about.html, UNAC administrative committee]
- Mass Meeting in Chicago Says Build Movement to Fight Trump! By Thomas LowNov 16, 2016