Frank Church

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Frank Church


Frank Church (July 25, 1924 – April 7, 1984) was an American lawyer and politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as a United States Senator from Idaho from 1957 to 1981. He is known for heading the Church Committee, which investigated abuses in the United States Intelligence Community.

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Born and raised in Boise, Idaho, Church served as a military intelligence officer in the China Burma India Theater during World War II. He established a legal practice in Boise after graduating from Stanford Law School. He defeated incumbent Republican Senator Herman Welker in Idaho's 1956 Senate election, becoming one of the youngest individuals ever to serve in the Senate. In the Senate, Church became a protégé of Lyndon Johnson and established a reputation as a member of the party's liberal wing. He sponsored the Wilderness Act and the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act.

Church emerged as an important figure in American foreign policy and chaired the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1979 to 1981. He was one of the first Senators to publicly oppose the Vietnam War, and co-sponsored legislation to curtail the war. In 1975, Church led the Church Committee, which inspired the passage of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act and the creation of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. He also led the effort to ratify the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, which returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama.

Church sought the Democratic nomination in the 1976 presidential election, but withdrew from the race in favor of Jimmy Carter. Church won re-election to the Senate in 1962, 1968, and 1974, but narrowly lost his bid for a fifth term to Republican Steve Symms. After leaving the Senate, Church practiced international law until his death in 1984.

He was the father of Forrest Church.

Intelligence "disaster"

Senator Frank Church (D-Id), was a hardcore leftist who fooled people by his quiet demeanor, but his work on a Senate "Intelligence Committee" in the 1970's severely damaged U.S. internal security and foreign/defense operations to the point that it took decades to recover back to anything resembling its former self. This severe emasculation of the intelligence community led to the intelligence failures of the Marine Barracks bombing in Lebanon in 1983, the first World Trade Center bombing in 1991, and the World Trade Center/Pentagon bombings of Sept. 11. 2001.

He nearly exposed one of America's top intelligence agents which would have certainly led to his immediate death. More on this later.

Capital/labor debate

Freshman Frank Church, recent winner of the All-University debate, and Senior Jim Kessler debated November 3 1942 at San Jose for the Masonic Lodge. It was a non- decision debate on the question: "Re- solved, that both capital and labor should be conscripted for the duration of the war." Kessler upheld the affirmative, while Church defended the negative viewpoint.[1]

Post-War Debate

The second all-University debate discussion was held Wednesday January 17 1943, at 7:30 in the Memorial Auditorium. The debate, which Ls concerned with the question of Post-War World Organization, is between Frank Church and Robert Vallier, and is being sponsored by the Stanford War Board. Rosemary Cross urged all students to attend, saying, "As the war makes great demands of college students, it is our job to be aware of the world off the campus." Judges will be Mrs. Roger Goodan, trustee and honorary member of Cap and Gown; Mr. Frank F. Walker, Financial Vice-President of Stanford, and Mr. Paul H. Davis, General Secretary of the University.[2]

"World Federation"

Stanford entrants in the Linfield College speech tournament left February 16 1943 for McMinnville, Ore., where they will compete Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday with contestants from all Western states. Jim Kessler, Frank Church, Bob Branch, Dick McClure, Dan Eymann, and Joe Soares have been selected to represent Stanford in rounds of debate, extemporaneous speaking, impromptu speaking, oratorical declamation, and a competitive roundtable discussion. Bob Branch will enter with an oration, "In Ten Days I Am Inducted," while Frank Church will compete with a declamation on World Federation. Each team will uphold both the affirmative and negative sides of the question, "Resolved, that the United Nations Should Establish a Permanent World Federation."[3]

Stanford Students Speak Over CBS

Four Stanford students, Dow Carpenter, Ambrose Rosehill, Frank Church, and Carl Burke, particpated in a radio panel which was I presented over CBS nationally, and KQW locally, as a part of the I "Opinion Please" program last November 1946. The program originated in Convention Hall. Atlantic City. N.J and the question for discussion was the proposed War Department bill, now before Congress, to enforce a six months' training period for every male citizen. Following speeches by Jay Cook and Dr. Alonso F. Meyers which presented the affirmative and negative of the question, the Stanford panel, led by Dow Carpenter, took over and attempted to refute and come to a conclusion on the question.[4]

Election Board rep.

Encina men met in the Encina lounge 28 October 1946, at 7:15 to discuss the forthcoming school elections. Frank Church, representing the Election Board in the meeting, explained the duties and functions of Excom to the freshmen and described the mechanism of nominating and voting for different candidates in these elections. "A frosh has to be only a 'registered freshman' with less than 29 units' credit to run for any position open for freshmen," said Frank Church. "I want to see the different candidates before I vote for them," said one of the students, and he was widely supported by the rest of the students. They asked Frank Church ! to convey this demand to Excom.[5]

"The China Myth"

"The China Myth" will be the topic at an assembly to be held at 3 p.m. October 30 1946 in the Education Auditorium. The assembly is the first of a scries of programs to be sponsored by the Education Council of the School of Education, according to Lucille Lucas, assembly chairman. Frank Church, a pre-law student on the Farm, will give the talk. Mr. Church spent three years in China attached to the military intelligence force of the Chinese army. He was present at both the preliminary and final surrender of Japanese forces in China.[6]

China Is Topic At I.D.G. Meet

"China: Kuomintang or Comniunist" will be discussed at the International Discussion Group meeting in Union Residence February 24 1947, at 7 p.m. in the second meeting held by IDG in the different living groups. The discussion will be led by Jerry Rubin and Frank Church, but the major part of the meeting 5 will be devoted to informal discussion by the students.[7]

Frank Church is a graduate student at Stanford and served in China for more than one year in military intelligence. He was on the staff of Ho Ying Chin, supreme commander of Chinese forces. Jerry Rubin is also a Stanford student majoring in Far Eastern relations. He is the president of the Chinese-American Friendship Club and was attached to the American embassy in China while in the army.[8]

Union Controls Debate

The question of labor union cotrols were debated January 12 1947 at 7:30 by Stanford and California students in the Cubberley Auditorium. Dow Carpenter and Frank Church of Stanford tok the negative side of the question, "Should there be further federal control of labor unions?"

Judges for tonight's debate will be: Ralph Evans, postmaster, Palo Alto; Clifford Giffin, former president of the Typographical Union, Palo Alto; Reverend G. Arthur Casaday of the Congregational Church, Palo Alto.[9]

Hawaii trip

Stanford debaters Dow Carpenter (later senior vice president of Times Mirror Co.) and Frank Church will describe their recent debate trip to Hawaii at the Stanford Mothers' Club meeting today May 20 1947 at 2 p.m.[10]

Frank Church and Dow Carpenter participated in a debate with a team from the University of Hawaii, March 21, on the question, "Resolved, that Hawaii should be given statehood in the United States."

They met two students from the University of Hawaii, Kenneth Skruwatari and Barry Rubin, to debate the question: 'Resolved, that Hawaii should be admitted to statehood." The Stanford debater , lost the debate by a two-to-one decision of the judges. The debate, held in Hemenway Hall on the university campus on March 21, was judged by Hon. Delbert Metzger, Senior Judge for the U.S. District Court of Hawaii, and Attorneys-at-law Chuck Maui and Urban E. Wilde. Church and Carpenter then traveled to the island of Maui to debate on the same topic with Earl Robinson and Bob Silva, University of Hawaii students.[11]

While they are there, Church and Carpenter will, besides participatI ing in the main debate, take part in a few informal debates in the outlying islands, and speak before groups of Stanford alumni. The debate with the University of Hawaii will be on March 21. Carpenter, Church, Malcolm Barrett, Robert Rubenstein, Carol Newton, and Richard Stanton were finalists in the competition to determine who should represent Stanford in Hawaii. Judging the contest were Helen Schrader, William Lucas, and Gordon Emerson, all of the Speech and Drama Department, and Frederick Glover, Director of Information.[12]

Banquet to Honor Retiring Professor

More than 100 friends and associates of Thomas S. Barclay gathered 24 May 1957 to honor him at a banquet at L'Omelette restaurant. Dr. Barclay, required by the University to retire at 65, is a national figure in the field of political science. He has taught generations of Stanford students and has inspired many to active participation in politics. Barclay will be presented*with a bound volume of approximately 160 letters of appreciation from associates and friends, including Governor Goodwin Knight, Congressman John W. McCormack, majority whip in the House of Representatives, and two former students—Senators John Kennedy of Massachusetts and Frank Church of Idaho.[13]

Among Thomas S. Barclay's students were many who became active as judges and lawyers and five who became U.S. senators: Frank Church, Mark Hatfield, Lee Metcalf, Alan Cranston and Henry Jackson.

Test ban inspiration

A firm supporter of the 1963 limited ban on nuclear tests, Church is credited with the inspiration, in 1959, of a treaty in this form.[14]

No more aid to Vietnam

1963, Church led a group of 23 Senators in calling for the curtailment of aid to South Vietnam, as long as the Diem regime continued its oppressive policies.[15]

Idaho Senator To Address "UN"

U.S. Senator Frank Church will be the keynote speaker for the Stanford United Nations observance. More than 400 Stanford students, American and foreign. will represent the 111 nations of the UN in a week-long mock session, beginning February 17 1964. Senator Church, a Stanford alumnus, besides speaking at the UN, will spend a week on campus as guest-in-residence at Wilbur hall, where he will meet with students and faculty.[16]

Stanford Foreign Policy Seminar

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The first core seminar for the IIR Foreign Policy Institute's upcoming conference on Revolution and American Foreign Policy will be held tonight in Tresidder under the leadership of Prof. Sinclair Drake. The conference, which will run from January 21 to 23 1966, will feature five speakers: Senator Frank Church of Idaho, cultural anthropologist Anthony Wallace, Yale's Dr. Truong Buu Lan, Dr. Benjamin Nunez, and a still-un-announced expert on Africa. The conference will focus on the geographical aspects of revolution, approaches to and types of revolution.[17]

Contacts were Kurt Moses and Barbara Dudley.

No "Pax Americana"

Senator Frank Church told a Stanford audience January 1966 that it is beyond the power and best interest of the United States to impose a Pax Americana upon an unwilling world. Addressing the Institute of International Relation's annual Conference, Church expressed "deep misgivings about the present foreign policy of the United States" and outlined a new approach to American policy in an age of revolution. He criticized post-war policy makers for treating the underdeveloped nations through an extension of "European" policies.

Addressing a near capacity audience in Dinkelspiel Auditorium, Church went on to blast all aspects of American foreign policy. He is considered a strong Administration critic in his position as a Democratic member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. By failing to recognize the difference between direct aggression in Eastern Europe by the Russians and Chinese support for wars of liberation in Asia, the maverick Senator asserted, the United States has committed itself to the role of "self-appointed fireman, scurrying to quench every revolutionary blaze, no matter how repugnant the government that sounded the alarm." Church noted that the causes of impending uprisings in Africa, Asia, and Latin America are essentially indigenous. Guerilla Wars to Come Rejecting the "domino theory" Church told the conference, "Regardless of the outcome in Vietnam, we shall have to live in a world beset with guerrilla wars for many years to come."

Guerrilla wars, the senator noted, were not links in a chain, but were rather a contagious disease carried on the winds of change. Yet the senator denied that he or any of the other dissenters from present foreign policy in the Senate were trying to spread a gospel of neo-isolationism. Rather he urged that the United States exercise a "prudent restraint and develop a foreign policy more closely tied to a sober assessment of our own national interests." Speaking directly to the Vietnam situation and the Dominican crisis, Church asserted that it was American prestige and not security that was at stake in Vietnam. But in the Dominican Republic he noted that traditionally the Caribbean had been a sphere of American influence, thus explaining intervention. For guerrilla wars which do not effect American security, Church advocated an "arm's length" policy, which would preclude the conversion of a conflict into an American war. Turning to an analysis of Communist strategy, Church noted that unlimited US intervention was actually strengthening the Communist's appeal in underdeveloped nations. By not allowing nations to undergo their own revolutions, the United States has aided the Communists in linking their ideology to nationalism in the new nations. That some insurgent nations might go Communist in a world not dominated by American intervention, Church regarded as no cause for panic since the ideological trend in the world today is nationalism. "Even when the two combine, Communism had become the servant of nationalist aspirations." Looking beyond Southeast Asia, Church predicted that prolonging the Vietnam War might lead to a solidification of Russia and China and a full-scale renewal of the cold war. While- direct intervention proved successful in Europe after the Second World War, Church noted that our intervention was welcome there and that America has no right to extend this assumption to the rest of the world.

Church also criticized the growing bi-partisanship in foreign policy which "effectively removed American foreign policy from the area of open debate within the government. It is no longer fashionable for the opposition party to oppose." Church participated with other conference speakers in a panel discussion of social change and political violence.[18]

Vietnam pullout

Sen. George McGovern introduced a resolution October 9 1969 urging total U.S. withdrawal from South Vietnam as swiftly as possible. McGovern's proposal seeks a pullout pace limited only by steps to insure the safety of U.S. forces, prisoner of war release and arrangements for asylum for South Vietnamese who want to leave with the American troops. Senators Abraham Ribicoff, Alan Cranston, Stephen Young, Frank Church and Harold Hughes joined in sponsoring the measure.[19]

Supporting the Moratorium

Two alumni of Stanford returned to the area November 1969 to voice opinions on the Vietnam War and the Moratorium at a press conference preceding a Democratic fund-raising dinner. Senators Alan Cranston of California and Frank Church of Idaho began an informal news conference at a Los Altos residence by citing examples of recent teamwork in the Senate. Cranston pointed out that he had supported Church's attempts to nullify Rule 22 of the Senate procedures, the filibuster regulation. "As usual, we lost," Church said. The senior Senator from Idaho praised Cranston's efforts supporting a resolution of Senator Aiken of Vermont which would clarify a long-standing misinterpretation of US foreign policy.

Cranston's amendment to the resolution states that this country's diplomatic recognition of another nation does not constitute American approval of that nation. This resolution could ease the way of future attempts to extend US diplomatic recognition to Communist China. Both Senators were in substantial agreement as to the withdrawal of US forces from South Vietnam. Senator Cranston clarified his position by stating that he would not support a unilateral ceasefire, because that would leave US troops at the mercy of an army which has shown little respect for past ceasefire agreements.

Senator Church, while commending the Moratorium, said that it had "dangerous potential," and that the Administration would probably continue attempts to "defuse" the grass roots movement. Such an attempt would consist of two steps: First, a stepped-up withdrawal rate of US combat forces, and second, a full, complete military disengagement from the conflict. The Idaho legislator said that no "halfway attempt" of the President would placate Americans in regard to the cessation of hostilities in Vietnam.

Church felt that Nixon's announcement of a speech on the subject (set for tonight) was meant to take some of the steam from the October 15th protest. Cranston added that the President probably does not know exactly what his talk will propose even at this late date. Senator Church favored a pullout of all US combat troops from Laos and Cambodia at the same time as the Vietnam disengagement. He criticized the fighting in Laos as the "first time the United States has engaged in an undisclosed foreign war." In conversation later, Senator Church stated that if public opinion had not been so intense against the policies of the Johnson Administration in Southeast Asia, "we would now be involved in a land war with China."

A member of the Senate for ten years, Church said that he would support the Moratorium as long as it remained peaceful and as long as the President did not substantially change his policies on the war. Senator Cranston reported that he had been working with members of the House, including Representatives Reid (R-New York), Don Edwards ( D-Ca li fornia), and Allard Lowenstein (D-New York) to sustain the Moratorium as a "peaceful, non-violent" protest.

In response to a question as to whether he conceived of America's purpose as one to act as "policeman" of the world, Church replied that, while the US should remain free to offer non-military assistance to foreign nations, foreign governments "should look to their own resources." To substantiate this view, Church reported that President Kennedy's original intention was to aid the South Vietnamese regime with everything but combat troops.[20]

Ruth Gage-Colby Testimonial Committee

The Ruth Gage-Colby Testimonial Dinner announced a January 20, 1972 testimonial dinner in New York City for Ruth Gage-Colby, an old-line Marxist who was a "long-time leader of Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), for many years a Communist Party USA (CPUSA)-dominated organization. She was also one of five "coordinators" for the Trotskyite Socialist Workers Party (SWP) Vietnam protest faction known as the National Peace Action Coalition (NPAC). NPAC was created by a split of the Trotskyites in the various Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam organizations because of their opposition to the policies and tactics of the Mobe's CPUSA-dominant faction (eventually renamed the Peoples Coalition for Peace and Justice (PCPJ).

On the list of "Patrons", among over a dozen Members of Congress, was:

  • Sen. Frank Church.

Church also publicly supported an NPAC protest in 1971 (DOCUMENT TO BE ADDED HERE).

Church pledges full CIA disclosure

A detailed report of illegal Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities — including findings on political assassinations and a possible Mafia link — will be made public following completion of the current Senate investigation into the intelligence gathering agency, Sen. Frank Church (D-Ida.) said at Stanford September3 1975.

Church, who chairs the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Activities, said the group's study into allegations that the CIA might have been 'involved in assasination plots in Africa and Latin America "has been the most sordid chapter in the investigation to date." The senator made the remarks during a question and answer session attended by 200 people in the law school's Kresge Auditorium. Setting standards One student asked Church whom he felt should ultimately set the standards under which the United States' intelligence forces work. The Stanford Law School graduate said those standards should "be set by policymakers and not by the agencies themselves." He pointed out that none of the alleged assassination plots had been carried out against leaders of nations which could "truly be considered threats to our national security." "All our assassination attempts were against the little leaders who could not start wars or endanger our security," Church added, "not Joe Stalin."

When asked if he thought the committee was engaged in "titillating the American people," instead of starting to write legislation to prevent a recurrence of CIA abuses, Church said he felt exposing illegal activities of the CIA and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) was necessary to prevent a "threat to the underlying liberties of Americans."

He used Chile as an example of a country where CIA abuses of power caused massive internal upheaval and alluded to the role of multi-national corporations in international politics. "ITT did offer money to the CIA, but the CIA refused to accept it. Instead, it presented its own 'course of action' to the corporations to disrupt Chile's economy." Church said that did not mean that the regime of the late Salvador Allende was good, "but we had no business intervening in Chilean affairs. Chile was no threat to the United States." Church has been mentioned in some circles as a possible presidential candidate. He said, however, that hewould not consider a run for the White House "at least until the committee finishes its investigation."

Church said he felt it unwise to "politicize" the committee by running for the White House. Running? But he did not rule out a candidacy after the investigation runs its course. "You know what they are saying out in Kansas City," Church said, referring to the site of the 1976 Republican nominating convention. "There are eight candidates running for the Democratic presidential nomination, and all eight are tied for eighth place." Church also lashed out at multi-national corporations during his hour-long talk. "Ford Motor's yearly output is as great as Austria's Gross National Product," he said, illustrating the massive financial empires which have grown up over international boundaries since World War 11. "Why should the U.S. subsidize insurance for large corporations against nationalization of property?" Church asked. "Tax laws make it more profitable for corporations to invest abroad. Multi-national corporations are involved in the 'Latin Americanization' of the U.S. by draining out resourses of developed countries [by building new industry where tax laws are easiest and labor cheap] for their own benefit..."[21]

Backing up Tunney

American pilots have been flying arms to Angola in Cl3O Hercules cargo planes, U.S. Sen. John Tunney said January 6 1976. Tunney (D-Calif.) said his source is an American eyewitness who was in Africa in recent weeks. Tunney said the source, who requested anonymity, also was eyewitness to an incident in which a helicopter carrying executives of an American aerospace company came under fire. "I consider my source extremely reliable. He was an eyewitness. American pilots are flying them," Tunney told a news conference. Questioned later, the senator said he did not know whether the pilots were civilian or military. Tunney said the Cl3os were making four or five flights daily from Zaire to Angola carrying arms at the time his source was in Africa several weeks ago. He said he didn't know if the planes are still flying. Who is paying? "I don't know who owns the Cl3os. We don't know the number of American aircrtift. One might ask who is paying for those aircraft. Is it a CIA operation? "Those are facts we don't have. We would like to have them. The only people who can answer these questions are the President and secretary of state," said Tunney, a candidate for re-election this year. He said the source is not a government employe but "a person of substance, a person who is a credible witness" who was in both Zaire and Angola recently.

Tunney, who has led the congressional battle to cut off U.S. aid to Angola, said he was sending an urgent letter to every member of the House of Representatives to confirm Senate action in cutting such aid. U.S. Sen. Frank Church (D-Idaho) in a separate appearance in Sacramento, confirmed Tunney's account in general terms. "There was a movement of weapons in there. Whatever Tunney says is accurate," Church said. [22]

IPS "who's who"-20th anniversary celebrations

By its second decade the Institute for Policy Studies had built up considerable influence in the U.S. government.

According to Information Digest[23]the Institute for Policy Studies celebrated its 20th anniversary with an April 5, 1983, reception at the National Building Museum attended by approximately 1,000 IPS staffers and former staff.

In addition to 1960s folk songs by Josh White, Jr. and a bluegrass band, consisted of an underdone "roast" of IPS leaders Marcus Raskin and Richard Barnet hosted and chaired by IPS trustee Paul C Warnke, head of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and chief SALT II negotiator for the Carter Administration. Zoe Mikva, wife of Congressman Abner Mikva handled arrangements . The "roasting" was undertaken by former Senator George McGovern, Rep. Ron Dellums, Ralph Nader, lesbian activist and author Rita Mae Brown, Village Voice cartoonist Jules Feiffer, Harry Belafonte and Cora Weiss, substituting for IPS board chairman Peter Weiss.

Many of IPS's current and former Capitol Hill friends attended or were represented by members of their staff. Among those serving on the IPS 20th Anniversary Comittee chaired by Paul C. Warnke were Senators Chris Dodd {D-CT} and Gary Hart (D. CO) with an endorsement provided by Senator Mark Hatfield {R OR}.

Former Senators on the committee included James Abourezk, recently an IPS Trustee, Birch Bayh, Frank Church, William Fullbright, Eugene McCarthy and Gaylord Nelson.

The Congressional IPS comittee members included Les Aspin {D. WI}, George E Brown, Jr. (D.CA}, Philip Burton (D.CA), George Crockett (D-MI}, Ron Dellums (D.CA}, former Texas Congressman Robert Eckhardt, Don Edwards {D.CA}, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Tom Harkin {D-IA}, Robert Kastenmeier (D. WI}, Chairman of the Subcomittee on Courts, Civil Liberties and the Administration of Justice, George Miller (D-CA}, Richard Ottinger {D-NY}, Leon Panetta (D-CA}, Henry Reuss (D.WI}, Chairman of the Joint Economic Committee, Patricia Schroeder {D.CO}, John Seiberling (D.OH} and Ted Weiss {D.NY}.

Among those attending were Victor Navasky and Christopher Hitchens of The Nation, Abner Mikva, appointed by president Carter to the U.S. Court of Appeals, philanthropist Philip Stern and Rep. Robert Kastenmeier. Among the well-advertised "no shows" were Bianca Jagger, who has been lobbying Congress with the assistance of the Washington Office on Latin America and the CISPES-Committee in Solidarity with the Peoples of El Salvador, against U.S. aid to El Salvador and for aid to the Sandinistas; and Atlanta Mayor and former U.N. Ambassador Andrew Young.

Members of the IPS 20th Anniversary Comittee included:

David Aberswerth, Gar Alperovitz, David Baltimore, Mayor Marion Barry, Norman Birnbaum, Conrad Cafritz, Peggy Cooper Cafritz, Dr. Helen Caldicott, Charles Caldwell, Lillian Calhoun, David Carley, Lisle Carter, Jr., Noam Chomsky, Dr. Mary Coleman, Catherine Conover, Dr. Franklin Davis, Diana DeVegh, Dr. James Dixon, Leonard Dreyfus, Celia Eckhardt, William Fitzgerald, Nancy Folger, Yolande Fox, Dr. Jerome Frank, Robert Freedman, Clayton Fritchey, John Kenneth Galbraith, Cherif Guellal, Mark Green, Dean Charles Halperin, Sidney Harman, W. Averell Harriman, Terry Herndon, Seymour Hersh, Karl Hess, Sonya Hoover, Richard Hubbard, David Hunter, Ivan Illich, Christopher Jencks, Vernon Jordan, Jr. Patricia King, Gabriel Kolko, Adm. Gene LaRocque, Dr. E. James Lieberman, Dr. Robert Jay Lifton, Philip Lilienthal, Sally Lilienthal, Edgar Lockwood, Franklin Long, Dr. Reginald Lourie, Ira Lowe, Dr. Bernard Lown, Michael Maccoby, Harry Magdoff, Louis Martin, Hilda Mason, Anthony Mazzochi, Dorothy McGhee, Rt. Rev. Paul Moore, Jr., Sidney Morgenbesser, David Morris, very Rev. James Parks Morton, Stephen Muller, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Ara Oztemel, Grace Paley, Charles Peters, Dean Ronald Pollack, David Ramage, Jr., Earl Ravenal, Cary Ridder, Mitchell Rogovin, Florence Roisman, Maurice Rosenblatt, Charles Savitt, Andre Schiffrin, Stephen Schlossberg, Mark Schneider, Herman Schwartz, Herbert Semel, John Sewell, Richard Sobol, Ralph Stavins, Ben Stephansky, Philip Stern, Studs Terkel, Michael Tigar, Michael Trister, Dr. George Wald, Peter Weiss, Stanley Weiss, Jerome Wisner, Gary Wills, William Winpisinger, Andrew Young and Anne Zill.

Supported by Council for a Livable World

The Council for a Livable World, founded in 1962 by long-time socialist activist and alleged Soviet agent, Leo Szilard, is a non-profit advocacy organization that seeks to "reduce the danger of nuclear weapons and increase national security", primarily through supporting progressive, congressional candidates who support their policies. The Council supported Frank Church in his successful Senate run as candidate for Idaho.[24]

References

  1. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 102, Issue 62, 4 November 1942]
  2. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 103, Issue 10, 18 January 1943]
  3. [ The Stanford Daily, Volume 103, Issue 31, 16 February 1943]
  4. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 110, Issue 36, 12 November 1946 ]
  5. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 110, Issue 26, 29 October 1946]
  6. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 110, Issue 27, 30 October 1946]
  7. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 111, Issue 12, 25 February 1947]
  8. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 111, Issue 13, 26 February 1947]
  9. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 110, Issue 52, 13 January 1947]
  10. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 111, Issue 55, 20 May 1947]
  11. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 111, Issue 21, 2 April 1947]
  12. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 110, Issue 71, 7 February 1947]
  13. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 131, Issue 65, 24 May 1957]
  14. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 145, Issue 13, 19 February 1964 ]
  15. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 145, Issue 13, 19 February 1964 ]
  16. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 145, Issue 9, 13 February 1964]
  17. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 148, Issue 56, 11 January 1966 ]
  18. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 148, Issue 65, 24 January 1966]
  19. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 156, Issue 11, 10 October 1969]
  20. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 156, Issue 27, 3 November 1969]
  21. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 168, Issue 3, 1 October 1975]
  22. [The Stanford Daily, Volume 168, Issue 52, 7 January 1976]
  23. Information Digest April l5, 1983 p77-79
  24. CLW website: Who We've Helped Elect