Jerry Nadler was born in Brooklyn in June 1947 and moved several times during childhood. Nadler's father "was a chicken farmer in New Jersey, ran a gas station on Long Island and owned a traveling auto parts store." Nadler attended Crown Heights Yeshiva and later Stuyvesant High School, from which he graduated in 1965.
Rep. Nadler is a graduate of Crown Heights Yeshiva, Stuyvesant High School, Columbia University and Fordham Law School.
West End Kids
At Columbia University, Nadler "began his political career as a founder of a group of students known as the "West End Kids,' (referring to the west side of Manhattan) which focused on reforming New York City Democratic Party politics through support of liberal and anti-Vietnam War candidates.
The Kids developed their political base by engaging in community organizing to improve local housing and education conditions." . Nadler's West End Kids at Columbia University, he wrote, "also led the 'Clean for Gene' McCarthy campaign that brought thousands of students to New Hampshire for the 1968 Democratic Presidential campaign of Sen. Eugene McCarthy against [Democratic President] Lyndon Johnson and the Vietnam War."
In 1970 Nadler graduated from Columbia University,worked "a stint as a legislative staffer, then in 1976 won election to a seat in the lower house of the New York state legislature, where he served until 1992.
While in the state legislature the feminist National Organization for Women honored him as the first male ever to receive its "Assembly Member of the Year" Award. The ACLU named Nadler to its Annual Honor Roll.
In 1978 Nadler earned a Juris Doctorate from Fordham University Law School.
In 1992 longtime Democratic Congressman Ted Weiss died one day before the primary election for a newly-redrawn Eighth District. Nadler replaced Weiss on the November ballot, winning easily.
As a Congressman Nadler joined the Congressional Progressive Caucus and became a leader of the Congressional Pro-Choice Caucus. According to Americans for Democratic Action Nadler votes on the left side of legislation 95 percent of the time.
Prominent DSOC member
According to Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee founder and chairman Michael Harrington, the influence of the group is disproportionate to its size because of the positions held by some DSOC members within the Democratic Party.
In 1980 prominent DSOC members included Rep, Ronald Dellums (D-CA); Hilda Mason, D.C. City Council, Harlan Baker, Maine state legislature; Jerry Nadler, New York state legislature, Perry Bullard, Michigan state legislature; Ruth Messinger, New York City Council; Harry Britt, San Francisco Board of Supervisors; Patrick Gorman, chairman of the board, Amalgamated Meatcutters; William Winpisinger, president, International Association of Machinists ; Irving Bluestone, vice president, United Auto Workers; Martin Gerber, vice-president, UAW, Sol Stetin, senior vice-president, Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers , Joyce Miller, national president, Coalition of Labor Union Women ; Dolores Huerta, vice-president, United Farmworkers, Cleveland Robinson, president, District 65, UAW; Victor Gotbaum, head of District Council 37, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees , New York, Mildred Jeffrey; Victor Reuther; James Farmer; Nat Hentoff; Gloria Steinem; Rosemary Reuther; Harvey Cox and Irving Howe.
Links to Democratic Socialists of America
Identified DSA member
- In New York, DSA State assembly members now include Eileen Dugan, Denny Farrell, and Jerry Nadler. Ed Wallace remains on the New York City Council, as an at large member, while Ruth Messinger was re-elected to the council...
In 1995 Jerrold Nadler was prominentat the DSA Socialist Scholars Conference April 7-9 New York City. Nadler was involved in Panel 1 "Crisis In The City" with Frances Fox Piven and William Kornblum.
Jerrold Nadler attended the 14th Annual Socialist Scholars Conference: "Two Cheers for Utopia: Reimagining Socialism" April 12-14, 1996 in New York City.
Other speakers included: Mimi Abramovitz, Daniel Singer, Harry Magdoff, Istvan Meszaros, Barbara Epstein, Ruth Sidel, Carlos Vilas, Rep. Jerrold Nadler, L. A. Kauffman, Leo Panitch, Hector Figueroa, David Abdulah, Louise Merriweather, Ngugi wa Thiongo, Amiri Baraka, Sonia Sanchez, Alexandr Buzgalin, Leith Mullings, Axel Queval, Pap Ndale, Jean-Pierre Page, and dozens more...
1995 DSA National Conference
Jerry Nadler addressed the 1995 Democratic Socialists of America National Conference.
DSA "People's Hearing on Economic Insecurity"
New York DSA held a "People's Hearing on Economic Insecurity" on October 28, 1995. The hearing, chaired by Congress members Major Owens and Jerry Nadler, was the second of twelve planned by DSA locals during the next year. With Republicans controlling both Houses of Congress, "progressive" legislation such as Ron Dellums' Living Wage/Jobs for Al1 Act and Bernie Sanders' Corporate Responsibility Act "can't get a hearing these days". Congressman Ron Dellums thus asked DSA to organize town meetings around the country that could begin to "refocus the public debate and unite poor, working and middle-class people around a program for economic justice and growth."
"It's shocking to me that no one is questioning whether the conservative way is the best way to promote growth," agreed Congressmember Nadler. " Many economists show that putting more money in the hands of the poor and middle class is more effective, and that one dollar spent by the govern inenthasgreater impact on the economy than one dollar spent by the private sector."
We have to put an end to the sterile debate, Nadler added, between conservatives who argue for growth through removing regulatory fetters and putting more money in the hands of the rich by reducing taxes, and liberals who argue for redistribution. "We need growth with fairness and equity, an industrial policy and investment in infrastructure and human capital."
Social Security briefing
- Recently, Congressional Representative Jerrold Nadler briefed DSA activists from around the country on the state of the Social Security situation. According to Nadler, the Social Security "crisis" isn't financial, it's political.
Congressman Nadler, attacked conservative assumptions, and called the "assault on social insurance a danger to the health and well-being of the citizens of the U.S."
Nadler pointed out, however, that it's "hard to stop something with nothing: "People on our side of the aisles have to have a positive plan." To this end Nadler has proposed a bill, HR1043, that addresses some of the perceived problems with Social Security.
Union Park Square event
- In March, New York City DSA arranged several panels and a reception at the Socialist Scholars Conference.
- For May Day (also known as Law Day in the United States), the local held an event in Union Square Park with Congressman Jerry Nadler and other speakers about the erosion of the rule of law under the Bush administration and about the promises of the Brown vs. Board of Education decision still unfulfilled on its 50th anniversary.
America's Future Now Conferences
Jerry Nadler was on the list of speakers at the 2009 America's Future Now conference, which was organized by the Institute for Policy Studies, and Democratic Socialists of America dominated Campaign for America's Future.
National Jobs For All Coalition
Still DSA member?
The rival Social Democrats USA (SD-USA) have alleged that Jerrold Nadler is a memberof Democratic Socialists of America. SD-USA's website history of the U.S. socialist movement confirms the known DSA membership of Ron Dellums, Major Owens, David Dinkins and John Sweeney and also names Nadler as a member.
- The Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee merges with the New American Movement, a socialist group that emerged from the New Left, to form the Democratic Socialists of America. To date, three members of the Democratic Socialists of America (link) have served in the U.S. Congress: Ronald Dellums, Major Owens, and Jerry Nadler. Democratic Socialists of America member, David Dinkins, is elected mayor of New York city. John Sweeney, a member of the Democratic Socialists of America, becomes president of the American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organization.
Greeting the Peace Marchers
The Great Peace Marchers arrived in New York, October 23 1986, after trekking 3,500 miles with their message of global nuclear disarmament.
They were greeted at the George Washington Bridge by Mark Green, Democratic candidate for Senate, David Dinkins, Manhattan Borough president, David Livingston, president of District 65 UAW, Assemblymembers David Paterson and Jerrold Nadler, and City Council members Ruth Messinger, Miriam Friedlander, Carolyn Maloney and Stanley Michaels.
Hiroshima Day, 1993
On August 6 1993, a rally to commemorate Hiroshima Day was held at the United Nations, Dag Hammarskjold Park, New York. The rally was designed "to kickoff a national campaign to collect a million signatures supporting a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, commend president Clinton for extending the nuclear testing moratorium, urge renewal of the Non Proliferation Treaty, urge swift and complete nuclear disarmament."
- Leslie Cagan, Cuba Information Project
- Elizabeth Holtzman, NYC Comptroller
- Congresswoman Carolyn Maloney
- David McReynolds, War Resisters League
- Ruth Messinger, Manhattan Borough President
- Congressman Jerrold Nadler
- Sonja Ostrom, Metro New York Peace Action Council
- Congressman Major Owens
- Congressman Charles Rangel
- Congressman Edolphus Towns
- Lloyd Wallisch, World Court Project, U.S. branch
- Alyn Ware, Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy
Sponsored Communist Party "Jobs Bill"
H.R. 950, the Job Creation and Infrastructure Restoration Act of 1997 was introduced in the 105th Congress on March 5, 1997 by Congressman Matthew Martinez of California. It had 33 original co-sponsors, including Jerrold Nadler.
Congressman Martinez had previously introduced this bill in the last Congress (as HR 1591) at the the request of over 50 prominent Labor leaders who formed the Los Angeles Labor Coalition for Public Works Jobs, which is why it is often referred to as the "Martinez Public Works Jobs Bill."
- This is the most significant jobs legislation introduced in Congress since Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal established the Works Progress Administration (WPA). This bill is the WPA-type program for today. It has strong provisions which will put hundreds of thousands of unemployed building trades workers to work as well as provide jobs for victims of plant closures, welfare recipients who are parents, youth, and the long term unemployed. The public works projects which will be established under this bill will be built in communities with the highest levels of unemployment and with the greatest needs.
- The goal of the New York Coalition for Public Works Jobs is to build the movement to pass the Martinez Jobs bill as part of the National Labor Coalition for Public Works Jobs. You can help by asking your union, community organization, or local government body to to join those who have already passed resolutions to endorse the bill. Such a resolution has been introduced in the New York City Council. Calling on additional Congressional Representatives to co-sponsor the bill is very important. We will be organizing petition campaigns, visits to elected officials, and demonstrations and other actions for a public works jobs program.
Los Angeles , National Labor Coalition For Public Works Jobs
New York rally
Congressional Progressive Caucus
As of February 20 2009 Jerrold Nadler was listed as a member of the Congressional Progressive Caucus.
Progressive Caucus SOTU Address
On Thursday, January 27 2000, from 3:30pm to 5:00pm in 2253 of RHOB, the Congressional Progressive Caucus held its 3rd Annual Congressional Progressive Caucus' State of the Union Address. This event was also sponsored by the Institute for Policy Studies' Progressive Challenge coalition whose Fairness Agenda for America is endorsed by 200 public interest groups nationally.
Caucus Chair Rep. Peter DeFazio(D-OR) stated "The Progressive Caucus Alternative State of the Union will provide a much needed reality check to politicians who would rather ignore the priorities of Americans left out of the economic boom -- priorities like access to quality health care and education, repairing crumbling schools, addressing the growing gap between the rich and poor, and creating a sustainable global economy that works for everyone, not just the corporate architects."
Anticipated speakers included: Peter DeFazio (D-OR), House Minority Whip David Bonior (D-MI), Earl Hilliard (D-AL);Dennis Kucinich (D-OH); Cynthia McKinney (D-GA);. Major Owens (D-NY)Bernie Sanders (I-VT). Tammy Baldwin (D-WI);. Maurice Hinchey (D-NY);Barbara Lee (D-CA); Jerrold Nadler (D-NY); and Lynn Woolsey(D-CA). John Cavanagh, director of the Institute for Policy Studies also made some remarks regarding public interest groups support of a progressive agenda.
- The Congressional Progressive Caucus, Chaired by Rep. Peter DeFazio (D-OR), consists of over a quarter of the House Democrats, one Independent and Senator Paul Wellstone. The Caucus will be releasing position papers on Health Care and Income Inequality, with reports on the Alternative Federal Budget, Social Security, Minimum Wage, Education and the Global Economy.
Remembering Ernesto Jofre
Ernesto Jofre, died March 5 2001, age 64, was a New York labor activist and Communist Party USA honoree. He was business manager and secretary/treasurer of the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union Local 169
Jerrold Nadler addressed Jofre's March 11 memorial service at the UNITE headquarters in New York. Noting that President Bush was "making war on workers", Nadler reminded workers of the adage '"Don't mourn. Organise".
Health Care Access resolution
John Conyers promoted House Concurrent Resolution 99 (H. Con Res. 99) Directing Congress to enact legislation by October 2004 that provides access to comprehensive health care for all Americans. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES April 4, 2001.
Sponsors:John Conyers (for himself), Jan Schakowsky, John Tierney, Barbara Lee, Donna Christensen, David Bonior, Dennis Kucinich, Earl Hilliard, Maurice Hinchey, Jerry Nadler, Donald Payne Chaka Fattah, Peter DeFazio, John Lewis Tammy Baldwin, Stephanie Tubbs Jones, Barney Frank, Henry Waxman, Cynthia McKinney, Jim Langevin, George Miller Alcee Hastings, Patsy Mink, John Olver , Bennie Thompson, Pete Stark, Julia Carson, and Mike Capuano submitted the following concurrent resolution; which was referred to the Committee on Energy and Commerce;
- Resolved by the House of Representatives (the Senate concurring), that the Congress shall enact legislation by October 2004 to guarantee that every person in the United States, regardless of income, age, or employment or health status, has access to health care..
In 2007, with the Democrats in control of Congress, Rep. Nadler was given the honor of serving as the Chair of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. He is also the highest ranking Northeastern member of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, an Assistant Democrat Whip, and the New York State Congressional Delegation’s representative on the Democratic Steering and Policy Committee, "affording him the opportunity to work on a daily basis to craft and shape the policy and major laws that govern our country".
Judiciary House Sub - commttee
In 2010, Nadler was chair of the House Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights and Civil Liberties. 
When the Democratic Socialists of America connected John Conyers, called for an investigation of the Democratic Socialists of America connected ACORN, the effort was brought to an holt, by the Democratic Socialists of America connected Jerry Nadler.
Rep. Jerry Nadler (D-NY), chairman of subcommittee on the Constitution, made the case that the bill to deny federal funding to ACORN, may not, if signed into law, stand up to court challenges.
The ACORN bill, Nadler claimed, was essentially a "bill of attainder," a measure targeted to benefit or penalize an individual or group which is prohibited in the Constitution, Article 1, Sections 9 and 10.
In a floor speech tonight, Nadler said:
- A little while ago, the House passed an amendment to the bill that we were considering that says no contract or federal funds may ever go to ACORN, a named organization, or to any individual or organization affiliated with ACORN. Unfortunately, this was done in the spirit of the moment and nobody had the opportunity to point out that this is a flat violation of the Constitution, constituting a Bill of Attainder. The Constitution says that Congress shall never pass a Bill of Attainder. Bills of Attainder, no matter what their form, apply either to a named individual or to easily ascertainable members of a group, to inflict punishment. That’s exactly what this amendment does.
- “It may be that ACORN is guilty of various infractions, and, if so, it ought to be vetted, or maybe sanctioned, by the appropriate administrative agency or by the judiciary. Congress must not be in the business of punishing individual organizations or people without trial.
Working Families Party
Anti-Fracking legislation endorser
On March 14, 2013, Rep. Jared Polis (D-CO) and Rep. Matt Cartwright (D-PA) have introduced the Bringing Reductions to Energy’s Airborne Toxic Health Effect (BREATHE) Act, and the Focused Reduction of Effluence and Stormwater runoff through Hydraulic Environmental Regulation (FRESHER) Act, in order to ensure that the hydraulic fracking industry follows the same rules that other industries do in preserving our natural resources. This legislation is focused on ensuring the safety and the health of the communities where the hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, process is already taking place.
The BREATHE Act would ensure that we close the oil and gas industry’s loophole to the Clean Air Act’s aggregation provision, in addition to adding hydrogen sulfide—a chemical associated with nausea, vomiting, headaches, and irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat—to the Clean Air Act’s federal list of hazardous air pollutants.
The BREATHE Act has the following original co-sponsors including: Reps. Rush Holt, Jr., Raul Grijalva, John Sarbanes, James Moran, Michael Quigley, Earl Blumenauer, Gerald Connolly, Zoe Lofgren, Michael Honda, Paul Tonko, Barbara Lee, David Price, Carolyn Maloney, Michael Capuano, Mark Pocan, Jim McDermott, Eleanor Holmes Norton, Alcee Hastings, Keith Ellison, Niki Tsongas, William Keating, Adam Smith, Jim Langevin, Chellie Pingree, Judy Chu, Louise Slaughter, Jerrold Nadler, Grace Meng, Jan Schakowsky, Nita Lowey, Jared Huffman, Gary Peters and Alan Lowenthal.
The following organizations have endorsed this legislation and are actively working to garner support within Congress and throughout the country: Physicians for Social Responsibility, Natural Resources Defense Council, Earthjustice, Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments, Sierra Club, Earthworks, Breast Cancer Action, Clean Water Action, Environment America, Greenpeace, Nature Abounds, Oil Change International, Citizens for a Healthy Community, Citizens for Huerfano County, Clean Water Action Colorado, Erie Rising, Grassroots Energy Activist Network, Holy Terror Farm, San Luis Valley Ecosystem Council, SOS Foundation, Western Colorado Congress of Mesa County, Western Slope Conservation Center and Wilderness Workshop.
June 18, Rep. Justin Amash (R-MI), Chairman of the House Liberty Caucus, and Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (D-MI), the Ranking Member on the House Judiciary Committee, announced the introduction of bipartisan legislation to address National Security Agency surveillance.
H.R. 2399, the Limiting Internet and Blanket Electronic Review of Telecommunications and Email Act (LIBERT-E Act), restricts the federal government’s ability under the Patriot Act to collect information on Americans who are not connected to an ongoing investigation. The bill also requires that secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) court opinions be made available to Congress and summaries of the opinions be made available to the public.
A coalition of 32 Members of Congress joined Conyers and Amash in introducing the bill. After introduction, Conyers and Amash issued the following statement:
The following Members of Congress cosponsored the legislation:
Rep. Paul Broun (R-GA) Rep. Judy Chu (D-CA) Rep. Suzan DelBene (D-WA) Rep. John Duncan (R-TN) Rep. William Enyart (D-IL) Rep. Tulsi Gabbard (D-HI) Rep. Chris Gibson (R-NY) Rep. Paul Gosar (R-AZ) Rep. Morgan Griffith (R-VA) Rep. Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Rep. Rush Holt, Jr. (D-NJ) Rep. Sheila Jackson-Lee (D-TX) Rep. Hank Johnson (D-GA) Rep. Walter B. Jones (R-NC) Rep. Barbara Lee (D-CA) Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rep. Thomas Massie (R-KY) Rep. Tom McClintock (R-CA) Rep. Jim McDermott (D-WA) Rep. James McGovern (D-MA) Rep. Mike Michaud (D-ME) Rep. Mick Mulvaney (R-SC) Rep. Jerrold Nadler (D-NY) Rep. Beto O’Rourke (D-TX) Rep. Steve Pearce (R-NM) Rep. Jared Polis (D-CO) Rep. Trey Radel (R-FL) Rep. Matt Salmon (R-AZ) Rep. Mark Sanford (R-SC) Rep. Kyrsten Sinema (D-AZ) Rep. Peter Welch (D-VT) Rep. Ted Yoho (R-FL) 
Lifting travel ban on Cuba
- Due to your action/emails/phone calls we have 59 signatures from House representatives urging President Obama to support travel to Cuba by granting general licenses for ALL current categories of travel.
- By eliminating the laborious license application process, especially for people-to-people groups, that is managed by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), the majority of the bureaucratic red tape that holds up licensable travel to Cuba would disappear and actually facilitate what the President wanted to see in 2011, liberalized travel regulations.
Signatories included Rep. Nadler.
As at 18 April, 2011 the following had worked as staff members for Jerry Nadler:
- Carole Angel
- Lelaine Valdez Bigelow
- Erinn Burnough
- Reid H. Cherlin
- Daryl J. Cochrane
- Kimberly Corbin
- Marilyn Daitsman
- Rena Diamond
- John Graham Doty
- Erin M. Drinkwater
- Zachary J. Farley
- Marc Fernandez
- Jonathan P. Flaherty
- Benjamin J. Freeman
- Laura Friedman
- Arturo Garcia-Costa
- Connie Sue Gillett
- Andrew S. Ginsburg
- Ari B. Goldberg
- J. William Goold
- Robert M. Gottheim
- David Greengrass
- Brett Heimov
- Michael Hurlbut
- Shinichi Inouye
- Rachel Kahn
- Leah Kane
- Michael A. Kay
- Ilan Kayatsky
- Barry Klein
- Maya Kremen
- Joshua N. Kruskol
- William Kuhns
- David G. Lachmann
- Micah Lasher
- Lyudmila Lenderman
- Andrea D. Martin
- Jennifer McCue
- Celine Mizrahi
- Lisette T. Morton
- Adam Nashban
- Nnennaya Okezie
- Rachel M. Ostendorf
- James D. Owens
- Daniel A. Penchina
- Rebecca E. Raiser
- Linda B. Rosenthal
- Lisa Y. Rubin
- Amy Beth Rutkin
- Heather C. Sawyer
- Daniel F. Scandling
- Eric Schmeltzer
- Maximiliano A. Sevillia
- Janice Siegel
- Katherine Smith
- Jeffrey Stein
- Malea Stenzel
- Ellen Wallach
- Daniel R. Weisfeld
- Jessica Wett
- Jillian Youngblood
- ↑ New York Magazine 22 Aug 1977, page 10
- ↑ Information Digest, September 19, 1980, page 331
- ↑ http://www.radiofreemaine.com/RFMDSA.html
- ↑ Radio Free Maine: 14th Annual Socialist Scholars Conference: Two Cheers for Utopia: Reimagining Socialism, April 8, 2001 (accessed on Feb. 8, 2011)
- ↑ http://firstname.lastname@example.org/msg18263.html
- ↑ Democratic Left, July/August 1996, page 21
- ↑ Dem. Left November/December 1995, page 7
- ↑ Dem. Left Spring 1999
- ↑ Democratic Left • Summer 2004
- ↑ Confabb website: America's Future Now 2009 Speakers (accessed on July 13, 2010)
- ↑ National Jobs For All Coalition: Who We Are (accessed on Nov. 16, 2010)
- ↑ http://www.socialdemocratsusa.org/aboutus.shtml
- ↑ PDW Oct. 23. 1986, page 3, 'Full schedule in NYC for peace marchers' by Richard Hoyen
- ↑ Peoples Weekly World, June 31, 1993
- ↑  The Job Creation and Infrastructure Restoration Act of 1997 (H.R. 950)From the New York State Communist Party 16 March 1997, email list, accessed June 14, 2010
- ↑ PWW, October 18, 1997, page page 3, "nationwide rallies support jobs bill"
- ↑ DSA website: Members of the Progressive Caucus (archived on the Web Archive website)
- ↑ Congressional Progressive Caucus website: Caucus Member List
- ↑ Common Dreams, Progressive Groups And Congressional Caucus To Present Their Third Annual Alternative State Of The Union Address, JANUARY 26, 2000
- ↑ PWW, March 17, 2001, page 9, "NY union leader Ernesto Jofre dies at 64, Roy Rydell
- ↑ Dem. Left, Summer 2002
- ↑  Nadler official website bio, accessed June 26, 2010
- ↑  Nadler official website bio, accessed June 26, 2010
- ↑  Nadler: ACORN ban unconstitutional. politico, Glenn thrush, September 17, 2009, accessed june 27, 2010
- ↑ [http://spectator.org/archives/2009/10/26/nadlers-acron-ethics} Nadler's ACORN Ethics , Mathew Vadum, The American spectator, October 26, 2009
- ↑ Polis website. Polis, Cartwright Introduce Legislation to Hold Fracking Industry Accountable,
- ↑ NSA Surveillance: Amash, Conyers Introduce Major Bill, Bipartisan Coalition of 34 Members of Congress Propose LIBERT-E Act, Jun 18, 2013
- ↑ Update on Cuba Travel: We Gathered 59 Signatures, The LAWG Cuba Team: Mavis, Emily and Karina on May 03, 2013
- ↑ Legistorm: Jerry Nadler (accessed on 18 April 2011)